Baba Saheb Dr. Bhim Rao Ambedkar was born in the city of Mahu city military camp in Madhya Pradesh, on date 14 April 1891, according to the date of the present day of Madhya Bharat Pradesh ie date of British India. His father’s name was Ramji Maloji Sakpal and mother’s name was Bhima Bai. These were the last of the 14 children of their parents. Their family belonged to the Hindu caste Mahar, then considered to be untouchables. People used to discriminate them and they had to face many problems at that time.
At that time, Ambedkar’s family believed Kabir Panth and his family belonged to Marathi origin, which belongs to the Ambedwe village in Maharashtra Ratnagiri district.Ramji Sakpal, father of Bhimrao Ambedkar, used to work in the Mahu Cantonment of the Indian Army and, while doing his job here, he reached the post of Subedar.
In his childhood, Bhim Rao was very clever in studies but due to his caste, Baba Saheb had to face much torture in school. His father got married to Jijabai in the year 1898.
How was Ambedkar named?
His father wrote Bhima Ramji Ambavadekar, the name of Bhimrao in the Guermanmant High School of Satara. Ambedkar’s childhood name was Bhiva. Bhim ji’s father had written Amandavkar instead of writing the surname, but the name of Kukki Amandava was related to his village. A teacher of the school, Shri Krishna Mahadev had great affection for Bhima Rao. He removed ‘Ambedkar’ by the name of Baba Saheb and added the name ‘Ambedkar’ as the Asan. That is why Baba Saheb Bhima Rao is known as ‘Ambedkar’.
When Ambedkar was 15 years old, in April 1906, he was married to a nine-year-old girl, Ramabai, who was then married to Kuki. Then Bhim Ji studied in class 5th.
Bhim Rao Ambedkar’s early education: Br Ambedkar Education
Ambedkar ji entered the first class of English in Govermment High School on Rajvada Chowk in Satara city on 7th November 1900. This school is now known as Pratap Singh High School. This is where Ambedkarji’s education started. Keeping this in mind, ie, 7th November, the Student’s Day is celebrated in Maharashtra. In the school, his name was written “Bhiva Ramji Ambedkar”. When it passed the fourth grade of English, everyone was very happy and they were honored at a public function because Ambedkar was related to a untouchable caste. Pleased with this achievement of Baba Saheb, his grandfather Keluskar ji gave him the ‘Biography of Buddha’ award written by himself.
In 1907, Bhimrao passed the Class X and the next year he took admission in Elphinston College, which was affiliated to Bombay University. It was the first person to study on such a high peak in his own caste.
In 1912 he obtained a BA degree from Economics and Political Science from Bombay University. After this Baroda started working closely with the state government.
B.R. Ambedkar’s Postgraduate Education from Columbia University
In 1916, he did his second research work for the National Dividend of India – A Historical and Analytical Study and went to London.
In 1916, Baba Saheb conducted his third research on “Evolution of Provincial Finance in British India”. He was awarded PhD in 1927 by publishing his research work correctly.Bhim Rao Ambedkar’s first published pamphlet was a research paper entitled “Castes in India: His System, Origin and Development”.
Postgraduate education in Bhim Rao from London School of Economics
Bhim Rao ji went to London in 1916 Here, he took admission in the Barrister Course in Gray’s Inn. Along with this, he got admitted to the London School of Economics. Here he started working on the doctoral thesis of economics. In June 1917, the scholarship granted by the state government of Baroda ended, so he had to come back to his home in the middle of his studies temporarily leaving the school.
They were given 4 years’ time to complete their thesis. After coming back to India, he started working as a military secretary in Baroda state again. Their life changed again due to discrimination which made them very disappointed and for this reason they left their job. After this he started working as a writer and private tutor. After some time, Baba Saheb was given a job as a professor of political economy at the Sydney College of Commerce and Economics in Mumbai.
With the help of his Parsi friend and Sahu Maharaj of Kohlapur and some personal savings in 1920, Babasaheb went back to England to complete his studies again. In 1921, he completed his MSc studies. During this time, he presented “provincial decentralization of royal finance in British India”, i.e. provincial decentralization of Imperial Finance in British India ‘Search Bland. In 1922, he was given a Barrister-at-Lodge degree in the Gray’s Inn, and during this time he got permission to enter the Barrister in the British Bar. In 1923, he completed his D.Sc (Doctor of Science) degree in Economics. At the time, his thesis was on “Problems of Rupees: Its Origin and Its Solution” i.e. “The Problem of the Rupee: It’s Origin and Its Solution”.
After completing his studies from London, Bhimrao Ambedkar stayed in Germany for 3 months. Here he continued his economics studies at the University of Bonn. But because of lack of time, he could not stay in the university for a long time.
Baba Saheb’s struggle for caste discrimination and untouchability (Dr. Ambedkar History)
Baba Saheb was required to serve him because Ambedkar had received education from the state of Baroda. For this, he was appointed military secretary of Maharaj Gaikwad. Here, they were discriminated against because of their caste and left them jobless. Seeing this concern of his growing family, he again tried to do some work to run his livelihood, for this Babasaheb started working as a writer and as a personal teacher, Also started the investment consulting business. But all their customers started to discriminate with them. In 1918, he was appointed Professor of Political Economics at Sydenham College of Commerce and Economics, Mumbai. Here the students treated them well but other professors refused to drink water with them and asked them to arrange separate water for them. Seeing all this, Baba Saheb was very sad.
Dr. Bhimrao Ambedkar was called to give evidence to Southborough Committee preparing for “Government of India Act 1919” as a major scholar of India. During the sanyadi here, Babasaheb advocated separate electorates and reservations for Dalits and other religious communities.
In Bombay, in 1920, Bhimrao Ambedkar started his weekly publication, Mukakayak.This publication became popular among readers soon. At that time, Bhimrao used it to criticize the stereotypical Hindu kings for fighting ethnic discrimination and reluctance of the Indian political community. Babasaheb gave a speech to the people of the dalit class, during this time Sahu IV, who was the local ruler of Kolhapur State, was very impressed. The ruler Shahu Chatur ji had a meal with them, which saw a lot of anger in the orthodox society.
While practicing law in the Bombay High Court, he made attempts to raise the education of Dalits and raise them. It was their first organized effort to set up a central organization, the excluded Hitkarini Sabha. The aim of this meeting was to promote socio-economic reform and education. In order to protect the rights of untouchables and Dalits, Babasaheb published five magazines such as Excluded India, Samata, Mokayayak, Enlightened India and Janata.
They were included in the Bombay Presidency Committee in 1925 for working in the European Commission, Simon Commission. This commission had a lot of opposition in India. The report of this Commission was ignored by the Indians.
Ambedkar ji organized a function on 1 January 1927 for the honor of Mahar soldiers killed during the Battle of Koregaon on 1 January 1818. In this event, an inscription was made in the name of the Mahar community soldiers, who gave Koregaon an indicator of Dalit self respect.
In 1927 Babasaheb decided to start a big and active movement against the discrimination against the Dalits. Through this movement Dr. Bhimrao Ambedkar tried to open public resources for drinking to all the communities of the society. There was a lot of struggle for the entry of Dalits into Hindu temples. He initiated a satyagraha in which Dalit communities fought to give more water to the tasty pond of Mahad city.
In 1927, Bhimrao Ambedkar publicly boycotted the ancient Hindu text Manusmriti which supported racial discrimination. He lit copies of ancient texts that discriminated against the Dalits during this period. On December 25, 1927, Bhimrao Ambedkar along with thousands of people handed over copies of Manusmriti to the fire. In the memory of this, on December 25, Manusmriti Dahan Diwas is celebrated by Hindu Dalits.
Kalaram Temple Satyagraha started in 1930 by Bhimrao Ambedkar. 15000 people gathered in the movement during this period Then the Dalit men went to the Kalaram temple for the first time to see God. When all these people reached the Kalaram temple, Brahmin officers closed the entrance to the temple for these people.
Poona Pact and Round Table Conference (Biography of Baba Saheb)
So far, the doctor Bhimrao Ambedkar had become the face of India’s untouchable political figure. During this time, Bhimrao also criticized the Indian National Congress and Mahatma Gandhiji. On both of these was Bhimrao alleging that Gandhi believed Dalits only as the object of compassion. During the first Round Table Conference of a Dalit class in London on August 8, 1930, Bhimrao kept his political views in front of the world. According to them, the protection of the oppressed class is free from both the Congress and the government.
“We have to make our own way ourselves and ourselves …. The problems of political power can not be solved, their salvation lies in getting their proper place in the society.They have to change their bad way of living … they should be educated … .. a great need to shake their sense of inferiority and to establish the divine dissatisfaction within them, which is the source of all the heights. “
Dr. Bhimrao Ambedkar criticized the Salt Satyagraha run by Gandhi and Congress. He was also invited to the Second Round Table Conference in London in 1931. There was considerable debate with Gandhiji on the issue of giving separate electorate to the Dalits in this conference, but agreed with the views of British doctor Bhimrao Ambedkar. Gandhiji believed that if the Dalits were given separate electorates then the division of Hindu society would be divided. Gandhiji believed that for the upper castes to forget the discrimination against the dalits, they need a change of heart and some years should be given for this. But this point of view of Gandhi proved completely wrong when the upper caste Hindus continued to discriminate against Dalits even after several decades of Poona Pact.
By agreeing to Ambedkar’s views in 1932, the British announced the separation of Dalits and untouchables separately. The Communal Award was announced by the views held in the Round Table Conference.
The demand for political representation raised by Baba Saheb was assessed under this agreement.Given the different electorates in this, people of the Dalit class were given the right to vote. Within this, a Dalit could use a vote to listen to a representative and could choose the representative of the general class from the second vote. In such a situation, Dalit representatives were elected only by the votes of Dalits. With this agreement no common man from the general category could choose a Dalit representative, but the Dalit could use his second vote to choose a representative of the general class. Now the Dalit representative, elected by the dalit people, could keep the problems of the dalit well in front of the government.
At that time Gandhiji was in Yerwada jail of Pune. First of all, Gandhi asked the prime minister to change the Communal Award. But when Gandhiji’s letter had no effect, he decided to keep his fast. At the same time, Dr. Bhimrao Ambedkar said that if Gandhi had kept this fast for the country’s independence it would have been good, but he has kept this fast against the Dalit people, which is very sad. While there was no objection from Gandhi regarding this (separate electoral right) rights to Indian Christians, Muslims and Sikhs. “
He also said that Gandhi is not an immortal person, how many people are born and die in India. I can not just leave the interests of Dalits to save Gandhi’s life. Due to this fasting, Gandhi’s health was constantly getting worse. There was a lot of crisis on Gandhi’s life, due to this, the whole Hindu society started opposing Bhimrao Ambedkar.
Given the increasing pressure of Hindus, Bhimrao Ambedkar moved to Yerwada Jail on September 24, 1932. There was a settlement between Ambedkar and Gandhi in jail which was later renamed Poona Pact. Under this agreement, Bhimrao talked about giving up the right of separate election to the Dalits in the Communal Award. Apart from this, Bhimrao increased the number of 78 seats in the Communal Award to 148. At the same time, for the dalit community, the funds received for education were regulated in every province and recruitment of people of the dalit class in government jobs, without any discrimination. By doing so Mahatma Gandhi broke his death fast and saved his life. Bhimrao Ambedkar was not happy with this agreement, he termed Gandhiji’s fast as a play to keep the Dalits deprived of their rights. He expressed his resentment towards Poona Pact in a book titled ‘State of Minority’.
Personal life of Dr. Bhimrao Ambedkar: ( The story of Baba Saheb )
Baba Saheb’s father’s name was Ramji Maloji Sakpal and mother’s name was Bhima Bai. His grandfather’s name was Malu Ji Sakpal. Their mother Bhima Bai died in her childhood, so her mother Meerabai handled them. Meerabai was the elder sister of her father. On the advice of his sister, his father got married again with Jijabai so that the children could bring Bhimrao to good work. While studying in class 5, Bhimrao Ambedkar married Ramabai.
Five of these children, including four sons: Gangadhar, Rajaratna, Yashwant, Ramesh, and a daughter Indu were. But except for son Yashwant, all the children died in childhood.
Bhimrao said that his life is made up of three followers and three gurus. His three adventures, that is, were gods – knowledge, self respect and devotion. And they named the three great men as their Guru, the first names are Gautam Budh, the second name is Sant Kabir, and the third name is Mahatma Jyoti Rao Phule.
Dr. Bhimrao Ambedkar was appointed Principal of Government Law College on October 13, 1935. While working on this post, he worked for 2 years. After the death of the founder of Ramjas College, Shri Rai Kedarnath, he worked as the chairperson of the governing body in this college. Bhimrao started living in Mumbai, he built a three-storey house in Mumbai. In this house, he had a private library with more than 50,000 books. At that time it was the world’s largest private library.
For a long time, his wife Ramabai was battling for a long illness, on 27 May 1935, her wife died. Before his death, his wife wanted to go for Pandharpur pilgrimage, but Ambedkar did not allow them. Bhimrao said that on the Hindu pilgrimage we are considered as untouchable, there is no justification for going there; instead, Bhimrao had asked to make a new Pandharpur for his wife.
The Political Life of Dr. Bhimrao Ambedkar: The Story of Baba Saheb Bhimrao Ambedkar
The independent Labor Party was founded by Bhimrao Ambedkar in 1936, which won 13 seats in the central assembly elections in 1937. On May 15, 1936, Ambedkar published his book ‘Annihilation of Cast’ (destruction of caste system), which was based on a research paper he wrote in New York. In this publication, Bhimrao had criticized caste system and Hindu religious leaders. In this, he strongly condemned the call of Harijan by Gandhi to the untouchables.
In an interview on BBC Radio in 1955, Bhimrao had accused Gandhi of supporting caste system in letters of Gujarati language and opposing caste system in English language letters.
Bhimrao Ambedkar worked as Labor Minister from 1942 to 1946 for the Defense Advisory Committee and the Executive Council of Viceroy.
Bhimrao Ambedkar was a major contributor to India’s independence.
During the Lahore Resolution of the Muslim League demanding Pakistan, Dr. BR Ambedkar wrote a book titled “Thoughts on Pakistan” in which the concept of Pakistan was described from all aspects. In the Babasaheb, the Muslim League rejected the demand for a separate country Pakistan for Muslims. He suggested that to bridge the Muslim and non-Muslim majority constituencies, the borders of Bengal and Punjab should be redone to redefine them. According to scholar Venkata Dhalipal, the Thought on Pakistan book has kept Indian politics for a decade. Dr. BR Ambedkar was strongly against the divisive strategy of the Muslim League and Mohammad Ali Jinnah. Mohammed Ali Jinnah had said that Muslims and Hindus should make the country. If this is not done then there will be caste nationalism to lead the country, which will lead to more violence in the country.
Doctor Bhimrao Ambedkar refuted the idea of Mohammad Ali Jinnah and mentioned historical events such as the disintegration of Czechoslovakia and the Ottoman Empire. Bhimrao asked if there is enough reason to make Pakistan a country? And he suggested that the differences between the Hindus and Muslims can be erased from a small drastic step. He said that communal issues have always been going on in countries like Canada, but still there are still French and British people living together if Muslims and Hindus can not live together.
Dr. BR Ambedkar had already warned that the actual work of making India and Pakistan two countries will be very painful and difficult. The separation of such a huge population will later be the problem of border dispute between the two countries. This prediction by Dr. Bhimrao Ambedkar is proving to be absolutely true today.
Bhimrao accused Congress and Gandhi of pretending through the book “What Congress and Gandhi Have Done to the Untouchables?” (What did Congress and Gandhi do for untouchables?)
In 1946, Bhimrao Ambedkar’s party, the All India Scheduled Caste Federation (RCF) did not perform well in the election held for the Constituent Assembly. After this, Bhimrao was elected to the Constituent Assembly from Bengal, where the Muslim League was in power.
The first Indian Lok Sabha election of 1952, Bhimrao fought with Bombay North but the Congress party’s candidate Narayan Kajolkar won here.
Ambedkar became a member of the Rajya Sabha in 1952. Bhimrao again contested from Bhandara in the by-election of 1954, but he lost again and again the Congress party won again. This led to the death of Dr. Bhimrao Ambedkar in the second general election till 1957.
While representing the Maharashtra in the Rajya Sabha, Bhimrao Ambedkar has been a member of the Upper House of the Indian Parliament twice. His first term as a Rajya Sabha member was between April 3, 1952 and April 2, 1956. His second term was to be held from April 3, 1956 to April 2, 1962, but before that he died on 6 December 1956 at the age of 65.
Bhimrao Hoo on the Shudras? (Who was Shudra?) Explained the hierarchy of Hindu caste system and also explained the existence of Shudras. He also emphasized that how uniquely the untouchables are different from the Shudras. Who Were the Shudras in 1948? In the sequel The Untouchables: A Thesis on the Origin of Untouchability (untouchable: A research on the origin of untouchability), Bhimrao criticized the Hindu religion for quite some time.
“Hindu civilization … which is a cruel device to make humanity a slave and suppress it and its proper name will be infamous. What can be said about a civilization that developed a very large class of people … considered to be inferior to a human being, whose touch is merely a reason to spread pollution? “
Bhimrao also criticized the policies of Islam in South Asia. They strongly condemned the child marriage arising in Muslim and the wrong behavior that took place with women.
he said that-
“The consequences of keeping polygamous and mistress can not be expressed in words which are especially the source of sadness of a Muslim woman. Take up caste system, everyone says that Islam should be free from slavery and caste, whereas slavery is in existence and it has got support from Islam and Islamic countries. While the prescriptions made by the Prophet regarding the justice and human treatment of slaves contained in the Koran are commendable, there is nothing in Islam which supports the abolition of this curse. Even if slavery is over, caste system will remain among the Muslims. “
In the Muslim society, Bhimrao had told social evils more than the Hindu society and he said that Muslims hide these evils by using hell words like brotherhood.
He said that even though dirty practices like the curtain tradition are also in the Hindus but it has been given religious belief only by Muslim religion. He said that Indian Muslims have failed to improve their society, on the contrary, countries like Turkey have made many changes in themselves.
Declaration of change of religion by Dr. Bhimrao Ambedkar: Biography of Baba Saheb Bhimrao Ambedkar
Bhimrao made great efforts for the change of heart of the upper caste Hindus for 10-12 years and struggled to bring equality and respect to Hinduism and Hindu society, but the heart of the upper castes did not change. On the contrary, they were greatly condemned and they were said to destroy the Hindu religion. After all these, he said that “We made every effort and satyagraha to achieve the level of equality in the Hindu society, but all proved futile. There is no place for equality in Hindu society. “Hindu society said that” human beings are for religion “In contrast, Ambedkar believed that” religion is for human beings. “
Bhimrao said that there is no point in having such a religion in which there is no value of humanity. Who does not allow people of their own religion to get religious education, obstruct their job, humiliate the matter, even the right to drink water. There is no point in living in this religion . Ambedkar did not make any determination to leave Hinduism for the destruction of any kind of hostility or Hindu religion, but he did with some of the fundamental principles which had no synergies in Hindu religion. During a conference on October 13, 1935 in Yeola near Nashik, Ambedkar announced a change of religion.
“Though I am born as an untouchable Hindu, but I will not kill Hargis as a Hindu!”
He also asked his followers to adopt another religion other than Hinduism. He told this to people in many public meetings of India. Following this announcement of the conversion of Bhimrao, the Nizam of Islam and many Christian missionaries from Hyderabad, lured him for crores of rupees to come to his religion, but Bhimrao rejected all the temptations. He always wanted that the economic condition of the downtrodden should be improved but not dependent on the money of others, but due to their hard work and organized, the situation should improve. Bhimrao wanted to adopt a religion whose center is ethics and human beings, in it there is freedom equality and fraternity. Bhimrao would never want to be included in such religion, which is a slave of touching and different mentality. He also did not want to adopt religion like that in which superstitions and hypocrisy are full.
Dr BR Ambedkar has studied all major religions of the world for 21 years after declaring a change of religion. In the end, Ambedkar liked Buddhism because it included the 3 principles which were not found in any other religion. Buddhist teachings of wisdom (use of wisdom in place of superstition and superstitiousness), compassion (love) and equality (equality). Bhimrao believed that man wants these things for a happy life and auspiciousness. Soul and God can not tell the society. According to them, true religion is the center of man and ethics, based on science or intellectualism, Nakki is the center of religion, salvation of soul and salvation. Apart from this, he had said that the work of religion should be reconstructed by the world, not interpretation of its origins and end. Bhimrao was in favor of democratic society system,He believed religion could become a guide to human life in such a situation. All these things got him and only in Buddhism.
Contribution of Dr. Bhimrao Ambedkar in constitution building
Bhim Rao Ambedkar Biography
Gandhi used to criticize Bhimrao greatly in the Congress, but despite the fact that after the independence of India on August 15, 1947, Congress formed the government, he made Bhimrao Ambedkar the first law and justice minister of the country. Bhimrao Ambedkar was appointed president on August 29, 1947 for constitution draft draft for the creation of a new constitution of independent India. The Constitution which was prepared by Bhimrao has provided constitutional guarantee and protection of civil liberties for individual citizens. In it, he was involved in ending the untouchability, eliminating all forms of religion’s freedom and discrimination.
Ambedkar raised the voice for social and economic rights for women, besides for the people of Scheduled Castes (SC), Scheduled Tribes (ST) and Other Backward Classes (OBC) schools and colleges they started job of civil services in Assam. To win assembly support. This Constitution was adopted by the Constituent Assembly on November 26, 1949. Bhimrao Ambedkar said after completing his work –
“I feel that the constitution is achievable, it is flexible, but it is also strong enough to keep the country together at the time of both peace and war. In fact, I can say that if something went wrong, then the reason would not be that our constitution was bad, but the man using it was inferior. “
Opposition Article 370 by Dr. Bhimrao Ambedkar :
Baba Saheb Ki Jivani Kahani
Article 370 which gave special status to the state of Jammu and Kashmir, this article was opposed by Bhimrao Ambedkar. In spite of their opposition, this article was included in the Constitution. Bhimrao had told Kashmir’s leader Sheikh Abdullah that “You want India to protect your borders, India should build roads in your area, India should supply your food, and Kashmir should be given equal status to India.” , But India should have only limited powers, but Indians should not have any right in Kashmir. I will not do a treacherous act against India’s interests as law minister of India to agree to this proposal.
Abdullah then contacted Nehru, who guided him to Gopal Swami Iyengar, who, in turn, contacted Vallabhbhai Patel and said that Nehru had promised skelet. Abdullah special status Article passed by Patel, while Nehru was on a foreign tour. On the day the article came to discuss, Ambedkar did not answer the questions but took part in other articles. All the logic was done by Krishna Swami Iyengar.
Bhimrao Ambedkar was in favor of the same civil code and used to oppose section 370 of Kashmir. Ambedkar’s desire was to be a country of modern India, scientific thinking and rational ideas. There was no place for personal law in his ideas. During the debate in the Constituent Assembly, Bhimrao urged the implementation of a uniform civil code by doing so and encouraged reform of Indian society. In 1951, the draft of the Hindu Code Bill of Bhimrao was stopped in Parliament, in which Bhimrao resigned from the cabinet. This Hindu code bill asked to give many rights to Indian women. In this draft, there was a demand for gender equality in the laws of succession marriage and the economy. Although the Prime Minister Nehru Cabinet and some other Congress leaders had corrected their point of view, President Rajendra Prasad and Ballabh Bhai Patel, quite a number of MPs were against this demand.
Bhimrao Ambedkar, who took a doctorate degree in economics from abroad, was the first Indian. He said that industrialization and agricultural development will greatly improve the Indian economy. In India, he said on investing in the form of primary industry in agriculture. This idea of Bhimrao helped the Indian government achieve its food security goals. Apart from this, Bhimrao advocated national economic and social development. Strong emphasis on getting public cleanliness, education, community health and basic amenities of residential facilities.
Bhimrao Ambedkar’s contribution in the Reserve Bank of India:
Baba Saheb Ki Jivani Parichay
By 1921, Bhimrao Ambedkar had become a professional economist. He wrote 3 important books on economics – 1. Administration and Finance of the East India Company
2. Evaluation of provincial finance in British India
3. The Problem of the Rupee: Its Origin And Its Solution
The framework of the Reserve Bank of India was based on Bhimrao’s views.
Second marriage of Bhimrao Ambedkar:
After a long illness, Bhimrao’s first wife, Ramabai, died in 1935. During the 1940s, Bhimrao had fallen ill with sleep deficiency, and his legs started to get worse, so he started taking medicines of insulin and homeopathic. They went to Mumbai for treatment and the doctors told them that you need a life partner who can make good food for you, take care of you and those who have a little knowledge of medicine.
In the hospital, Bhimrao met Sharda Kabir, and on 15 April 1948, he married Sharda Kabir.
After marriage, the doctor Sharda Kabir kept her name Savita Ambedkar. These were later known as ‘Mai’ or ‘Maisaheb’. Savita Ambedkar gave up his life on May 29, 2003 in Mehrauli, Delhi.
Changes in Bhimrao Ambedkar’s Buddhism:
In the 1950s, Babasaheb was attracted to Buddhism. He announced that he is writing a book on Buddhism and as soon as it is complete, he will formally adopt Buddhism. Bhimrao founded the ‘Indian Buddhist Mahasabha’ i.e. ‘Buddhist Society of India’ in 1955. In 1956, he completed his famous book, ‘The Buddha and His Dhamma’.
This book was published in 1957 after his death. In the preface of this book, Dr. Bhimrao Ambedkar wrote:
“I consider Buddha’s Dhamma the best. No religion can be compared to this. If a modern person who believes in science should have a religion, then that religion can only be a Buddhist religion. After twenty-five years of close study of all religions, this conviction has increased among me. “
On October 14, 1956, Bhimrao Ambedkar formally organized a public conversion ceremony with his supporters in the city of Nagpur. Earlier, Dr. Bhimrao adopted Buddhism, along with his wife Savita and other supporters, while receiving eclipse and Panchsheel by the monk Mahaishavir Chandramani. After this, his 500,000 supporters adopted Buddhism, taking triatna, Panchsheel and 22 pledges. Bhimrao was breaking the trap of the gods and imagining a person who is religious, but non-equality is not considered to be worth living. In order to be completely free from the bonds of Hinduism, Bhimrao himself fixed 22 vows for Buddhist followers, which was the essence of Buddhism. In these 22 pledges, the denial of avatars, renunciation, disbelief, abandonment of Pindan, participation in any ceremony performed by Brahmins, participation in the principles and teachings of the Buddha,Faith in human equality, kindness towards creatures, following the spiritual path of Buddha, not speaking lies, not eating alcohol, stealing, adopting Buddhism and relating to sacrifice of Hindu religion based on inequality.
After adopting a new religion, Bhimrao and his followers condemned the inequality of Hindu religion and its philosophy.
Those 2 to 3 lakh people could not attend the October 14 ceremony, they got initiation of Buddhist Dham on the next day ie October 15.
In these 2 days, Bhimrao Ambedkar initiated Buddhist religion in Nagpur about 8 lakh people, hence the name of this place became known as Dikshabhoomi. On October 16, third Bhimrao went to Chandrapur. Here Bhimrao initiated the Buddhist Dhama of about 3 lakh people. In these 3 days, Bhimrao Ambedkar converted more than 11 lakh people into Buddhism.
Dr. Bhimrao Ambedkar dies: Dr Bhim Rao Ambedkar Death
Dr. Bhimrao Ambedkar was suffering from diabetes from 1948, he became very sick till 1954. Now they were less visible than the eyes. Due to being involved in political issues all day, Bhimrao’s health became worse every day. Due to continuous work in 1955, his health became much worse. After completing his last manuscript Lord Buddha and his Dhamma, on December 6, 1956, Dr. Bhimrao Ambedkar died in his house in Delhi. At the time of his death, he was 64 years and 7 months old.
Through the aircraft, his body was brought from Delhi to Mumbai, his home was rajasthan.
BP BF Mumbai’s Dadar Chowpatty beach on December 7, according to the Buddhist style Dr. Bhimrao Ambedkar was cremated. Meanwhile, supporters and fans of millions of workers of Bhimrao participated. Considering his body as a witness at the time of his funeral, more than one million people had initiated Buddhism through Bhadant Anand Kausalayan.
After the death of Baba Saheb, his family had left his wife Savita Ambedkar. He died on 29 May 2003 at the age of 94.
His son Yashwant Ambedkar and grandson Prakash Ambedkar now lead the Bharipya Bahujan Mahasangh.
Dr. Bhimrao Ambedkar was honored with the highest civilian award Bharat Ratna in 1990, posthumously by the Government of India. On Ambedkar Jayanti, public holidays are kept all over India.
Every year more than 10 lakh people pay tribute to Mahaparinirvana (Punishment) (6th December), Jayanti (April 14), and Dhamchachakra Promotion Day (October 14th) in Chaiti Bhoomi (Mumbai), Diksha Bhoomi (Nagpur) and Bhim Janmabhoomi (Mhow). Are gathered to offer.
Ambedkar had a message for Dalit people – “Be educated, get organized, fight”.
Ambedkarism: What is Ambedkarism?
“Ambedkarism” is an ideology and philosophy of Baba Bhimrao Ambedkar. This ideology includes the principles of freedom, equality, brotherhood, science, humanism, Buddhism, truth, non-violence etc. Social reform in the dalits, destroying untouchability, propaganda and propagation of Buddhism in India, protection of fundamental rights and rights in the Indian Constitution, the creation of a moral and ethnic society and the progress of India, all these are principally the principles of Ambedkarism I have included.
Principal books of Dr. Bhimrao Ambedkar and other works:
Doctor Bhimrao Ambedkar has 32 books, monographs containing 24 and 10 incomplete books, 10 memorandums, evidence and statements, 10 research papers, Dutt prologues and predictions are compositions of English language. Baba Saheb had knowledge of 11 languages in which the mother tongue was Marathi, Hindi, English, Sanskrit, Pali, Gujarati, Persian, Kannada, French and Bengali languages.
In the days of all the politicians of his time, Bhimrao did the most writing work. In social and political conflicts, he wrote in many books, essays, articles and speeches. His literary works are recognized for their major social attitude. All of them get their vision and future thinking. Bhimrao’s compositions are read in the entire world including India. Lord Buddha and his Dhamma are known as ‘Dharmagrantha’ of Indian Buddhists. His D.Sc. Managing the Problem of the Rupee: It’s Origin And Its Solution has established the central bank of India ie Reserve Bank of India.
On March 15, 1976, the Maharashtra government established Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar Material Publication Committee. The main objective of the Maharashtra Education Department is to publish the entire literature of Babasaheb in several sections. “Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar: Writings and Speechs” by 2019, 22 sections have been published in the English language. The first section under this scheme was published on April 14, 1979, on the birthday of Dr. Bhimrao Ambedkar. So far 29 books have been published through this scheme. Since 1987, the work of translating all these into Marathi language had started but till now the work has not been completed.Dr.Babasaheb Ambedkar: Writings and Speeches’Seeing popularity and importance, the Indian government has published 21 sections in Hindi and has published it. 10 English sections have been translated into 21 Hindi sections. The complete literature of Dr. Bhimrao Ambedkar has not been published yet, more than 45 unpublished sections of his literature can be made.
Doctor Bhimrao Ambedkar and Journalism:
Baba Saheb Ki Jivani Hindi Mai
Dr. Bhimrao Ambedkar was also a good journalist and editor. He believed that there will be progress in the society through newspapers. They considered newspapers to be very important in the movement. In order to bring about progress and awakening in the underdog society, he published and edited many letters and journals. All these helped them greatly in taking the Dalit movement forward. He said that “Any movement needs a newspaper to make a success, if the movement does not have any newspaper, then the movement of the movement is like a winged bird.”
The basis of Dalit journalism is considered as Bhimrao, because it was the publisher and founder of the first editorial of Dalit journalism. Dr. Bhimrao Ambedkar published all the letters in Marathi language as his main work was Maharashtra and the general language of that language was Marathi. The dalit and exploited masses of Maharashtra were not well-educated at that time; the people of that region mostly knew Marathi.
For quite a number of years, he edited 5 Marathi journals, including the dancer (1920), Excluded India (1927), Samata (1928), Janata (1930) and Enlightened India (1956). In these 500 journals, Dr. Bhimrao Ambedkar had expressed his views on the political social and economic issues of the country. In 1987, for the first time in India, writer and thinker Gangadhar Pantawane wrote a PhD research paper on Ambedkar’s journalism. In it, Pantawane wrote about Ambedkar, “The Mukainak brought the people of displaced India to the enlightened India. Babasaheb was a great journalist. “
The fictitious letter of Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar:
Seeing the atrocities committed on Dalits, Bhimrao started his first Marathi fortnightly letter dancer on January 31, 1920 . Its editor was Pandu Ram Nandram Bhatkar and Bhimrao Ambedkar. The only part of this stone was the word of Saint Tukaram. For this letter Chhatrapati Shahu Maharaj of Kolhapur institute also provided assistance of 25 thousand.
The placard letter used to torment the atrocities on Dalits. Through this letter, a new consciousness became communicated to the Dalits and incited them to fight for their rights. Bhimrao had to go to another country for his studies and due to economic lack, this letter was closed in 1923.
Bhimrao Ambedkar’s magazine Excluded India:
After the closure of the Lokayukat letter in 1923, Bhimrao withdrew his second Marathi fortnightly letter on April 3, 1924, from India. This paper was edited by Bhimrao Ambedkar himself. Through this letter he used to try to bring the problems and complaints of the Dalit society to the public. Once in the editorial he wrote that if the child was born between Gangadhar Tilak untouchables, he would never make the slogan “Swaraj is my birthright” instead, “I have a perfect right to eradicate untouchability.” The Dalit people This letter played an important role in awakening. On the top parts of this newspaper were the words of Saint Dnyaneshwar. A total of 34 points of this Marathi letter came out, but due to economic difficulties, it was also closed in November 1929.
Bhimrao Ambedkar’s Hindi letter Samata:
Bhimrao started the Hindi letter Samata on 29 June 1928. This letter was the mouthpiece of Samiti Sainik Dal (Samata Sainik Dal) organized by Bhimrao Ambedkar. Bhimrao Ambedkar made Vishnu Nayak editor of this letter.
Journal of Bhimrao Ambedkar’s public:
Samata papers were closed for some reasons, after which Bhimrao published this letter again by the name of Janata. The first fortnight of the public letter came out on 24 February 1930. This stone became a weekly on October 31, 1930. Bhimrao wrote a well-known article titled “We will become a caste Jamat” (Hindi: We will become the ruling community). This letter did a very important job in raising the problems of stone people. This letter was closed in 1956. This letter lasted for 26 years.
Magazine of Bhimrao Ambedkar Illustrated India:
Dr. Bhimrao Ambedkar started the enlightened India letter on 4th February, 1956. It was the public letter that was renamed Bhimrao by enlightened India. The mouthpiece of ‘Akhil Bharatiya Dalit Federation’ was published on the face of this letter. After the demise of Bhimrao, the letter was closed. Bhimrao’s grandson Prakash Ambedkar announced on 11th April 1917 the resumption of the enlightened India in the celebration of Mahatma Phule’s birth anniversary. The first issue of enlightened India began again in fortnightly on May 10, 2017.
All the above mentioned journals, Doctor Bhimrao Ambedkar contributed greatly to the upliftment of the Dalits, thereby making a difference in the life and thinking of the untouchables.
The legacy of Baba Saheb doctor Bhimrao Ambedkar:
Baba Saheb Ki Jivan Katha
Where Babasaheb first went to Babasaheb with respect and honor by the supporters of Bhimrao in October 1927. Babasaheb is a Marathi word which means father saheb. His follower wanted Babasaheb to be his great savior, so he called Bhimrao Babasaheb.
Today, many universities and public institutions have been named after Babasaheb. Among them are Dr. BR Ambedkar National Institute of Technology (Jalandhar), Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar International Airport, Ambedkar University, Delhi. Many awards are given on their names.
In 2004, the Columbia University of America decided to celebrate this day prominently on its 200th anniversary. This university created a list of 100 intelligent students who had read from here, the Colombian Offades of Their Time. When this list comes in front of everyone, the first name in it is the Bhimrao Ambedkar story and he was mentioned as “the creator of modern India”. Ambedkar was called the most intelligent student by Columbia University.
During the election poll conducted in 2012 by History TV18 and CNN IBN, Bhimrao Ambedkar was voted the most as “The Greatest Indian”.
Amartya Sen, an economist who has received Nobel Prize in Economics, said, “Ambedkar is my father in terms of economics. Where did Indian economist Narendra Jadhav, who was the highest educated Indian economist of all time, because of his important role in economics? He is the true superhero of untouchables and exploited. All the demands that they have till date are far more than that. In India, he has been a highly controversial person. Although nothing to dispute in his personality and life. Whatever is said in their criticism is very different from reality. His contribution in the field of economics has been fantastic. “
Spiritual master Osho said that “I have seen those people who are born in the lowest category of Hindu law, in the untouchables, but they are very wise: when India became independent, and who created the constitution of India Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar was a Shudra person. According to the law, there was no equal to his intelligence – he was a world famous authority. “
Addressing Indian Parliament in 2010, US President Barack Obama addressed Dr. Bhimrao Ambedkar as the great and respected Human Rights Champion and Chief Writer of the Constitution of India.
Historian Ramchandra Guha called him “the messiah of the poor”
Ambedkar’s political philosophy gave birth to large number of political parties in the labor unions in India. By adopting Buddhism, interest in Buddhism increased among the people of India. In today’s time, large scale celebrations are also being converted to Buddhism.
If talked outside of India, during the 1990’s, some Hungarian Romani people saw some similarities between the Dalits of India. Dr. B. R.Inspired by Ambedkar, the people there started to change in Buddhism. The people there have also started 3 schools named “Dr. Ambedkar High School” in Hungary. On December 6, 2016, Ambedkar’s Statue was also established in a school by Jai Bhim Network of Hungary.
The Dr. Ambedkar Aum Museum has been built in Chicholi village in Nagpur district of Maharashtra. Apart from this, Ambedkar’s personal items are also kept in Shantivan.
Dr. B. R.Ambedkar has been the most revered leader of the dalit community. Baba Saheb’s idol and statue can be found in India’s Hargaon, city, railway station, intersection and parco. Photographs of Western suit, with tie, in a pocket in front, a pen and arms will be found in the Indian Constitution book and spectacles. In many countries of the world, including sculptures of Japan, Great Britain, they will get sculptures.
Dr. B.R. Ambedkar in popular culture
Dr. Bhim Rao Ambedkar Biography
Every year on April 14, Baba Saheb’s Birthday is celebrated as Ambedkar Jayanti. There is a big festival for the people of Maharashtra. Maharashtra government celebrates Ambedkar Jayanti as Gyan Divas because Dr. Ambedkar is not only a symbol of knowledge but also a symbol of knowledge. This is a public holiday all over India. Every year on this day, tributes are given to him by the President of India and the Prime Minister of New Delhi Parliament. Dalit Buddhists and Ambedkarites, like their God, keep their photographs in their own houses and congratulate them.
Besides India, Ambedkar Jayanti is celebrated in more than 65 countries of the world. 125th Birth Anniversary of Ambedkar was organized by the United Nations. The United Nations called Baba Saheb as ‘the leader of the world’. Ambedkar’s birth was started by Ambedkar from his follower Randi.
Student day is celebrated by the Maharashtra government on 7th November as the day Bhimrao Ambedkar entered the school. In spite of being a great scholar, Bhimrao Jivanogi remained a student as a student. On this day many programs are organized in the school colleges including essays, lectures, quizz compitions, competitions, and poetry lessons on Ambedkar’s life.
Jai Bhima is a greeting used by Ambedkarites, which means Bhimrao Ambedkar’s victory or Bhimrao Ambedkar is Zindabad. This phrase was coined by the follower of Bhimrao Babu Hardas.
The symbol of bhimrao is blue color. This color was very cute to Bhima Rao because it is a symbol of equality. The picture of Baba Saheb is always found in the coat of blue color. In 1942, Bhimrao had set up the Schedule Caste Federation of India Party, the color of the flag of this party was also found, and in between it was Ashok Chakkar.
Bhimrao took this blue color of the flag from the flag of Maharashtra’s Dalit class Mahar. This blue flag of Ashoka Chakra of Buddhism has become the symbol of Ambedkarabad. Apart from this, other Ambedkarite organizations, including Bharip Bahujan Mahasangh, Bahujan Samaj Party, have also adopted this color. Buddhists and Dalits use blue colors and blue flags on each occasion.
Bhimayan: Experience of Unacceptability (Bhimyan: Experience of Untouchability) This is a graphical biography of Bhimrao Ambedkar. This is made by Pardhan-Gondist Durgabai Vyam, Subhash Vyam, Srivid Natarajan and S. Anand. In this composition, all experiences of untouchability have been shown from Bhimrao’s childhood till it grows.
In 1920, the house where Bhimrao was studying in London was converted into “International Ambedkar Memorial”. It was inaugurated by Prime Minister of India Narendra Modi on November 14, 2015.
Ambedkar garden park in Lucknow has been built in his memory. It is a monument to display his biography in Chaitya.
Postage stamps were issued by Indian Post on his birthday in 1966, 1973, 1991, 2001 and 2013.
On April 14, 2015, Google celebrated the birth anniversary of Dr. Bhimrao Ambedkar by Doodle on his home page. This doodle has also been seen in India including Argentina, Chile, Ireland, Peru, Poland, Sweden and United Kingdom.
The coins of Rs 10 and 125 were released by the Indian government in the celebration of 125th birth anniversary of Dr. BR Ambedkar.
Films and plays made on Doctor B.R. Ambedkar:
Films and plays showing the thinking and biography of Dr. Bhimrao Ambedkar have been created. Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar was directed by Jabbar Patel in 2000. This film was produced by the Government’s Social Justice and Empowerment Ministry and National Film Development Corporation. Due to controversy, this film took a lot of time to appear. Professor David Blundell established a series of films and events – Ariasing Light, with the aim of encouraging interest and knowledge about Ambedkar’s life. Ambedkar’s main role was created in the Constitution of a mini TV series directed by Shyam Benegal.
A Marathi series Ubવad Ambedkar was started on the occasion of 125th birth anniversary of Bhimrao Ambedkar by ABP Manja TV in 2016. Ambedkar’s 11 different roles have been played in the Steve series – Shikshavid, economist, editor, labor leader, Satyagrahi (Mahad Satyagrahaa, Kalaram Temple Satyagraha), Siyasati Leader (Poona Pact, Hindu Code Bill) Barrister, bookmaker, writer, constitution Manufacturer and Buddha Followers
A lot of films have been made on the life and thoughts of Bhimrao Ambedkar. Here are some of the important films of Bhimrao Ambedkar –
- Yugpurush Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar – Marathi Film (1993)
- Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar – English film of 2000
- Bhim Bhangna – Marathi Film (1990)
- Child Ambedkar – Kannada Film (1991)
- Dr. BR Ambedkar – Kannada Film (2005)
- Raising Light – Documentary film made in 2006
- A Journey of Samyak Buddha – Hindi film (2013), based on Ambedkar’s Lord Buddha and his Dhamma Granth.
- Ramabai – Kannada Film (2016)
- Dr. BR Ambedkar – Kannada Film (2005)
- Raising Light – Documentary film made in 2006
- Bole India Jai Bhim – Marathi Film, Dub in Hindi (2016)
- Bal Bhimrao – Marathi film of 2018
- A Journey of Samyak Buddha – Hindi film (2013), based on Ambedkar’s Lord Buddha and his Dhamma Granth
- Ramabai – Kannada Film (2016)